Quantum computing will bring new phenomena to our world that will change almost everything we know and believe we know about computing.
Thanks to the overlap, a particular physical behavior. This new computation method can solve problems that no other conventional computer could.
In this article, I will give the brief introduction to Quantum Computer so that it will be easily understood even if you are new to this technology. Later I will share benefits and advantages of quantum computing over classical computing.
Starting from the beginning, let us go back to square one and remember that current computing works in bits.
Your computer only knows how to “read” the information in two states: zeros or ones (on or off).
For the bits we normally have only voltages: we apply 3V on a wire = 1; we apply 0.5V on the same wire = 0.
And everything that is done in a computer is transcribed to this system by transistors. Those are kind of small boxes that can store energy and release it when necessary. Called Transistors.
Understanding transistors are important for comparing quantum computing with conventional (classical) computing.
When a box has stored electricity, we interpret it as a 1, and if not, a 0.
We use about 6 transistors per bit and, in addition, there are circuits called logic gates, which measure the state of the boxes and save energy in new boxes accordingly.
For example, the OR gate measures whether there is electricity in two boxes, and only if there is electricity in one of them, stores electricity in another box.
For the case of simplification, these are the physical elements that carry out the calculations we make through programs and apps. As you can imagine, the speed at which a computer can process the information is linear to
As you can imagine, the speed at which a computer can process the information is linear to a number of bits it owns, depending on the hardware. And by default, it has a technical limit.
The technical limit might seem like an oversimplified thing; just make bigger computers and you’d be able to process data more efficiently, right?
Unfortunately, things aren’t so simple.
The limit becomes apparent when we think that not all the classical computers in the world are smart enough to solve optimization problems when the amount of data is too large.
And in this moment of history, as a civilization, we generate immense amounts of data: climatic, population, geomorphic, patterns of behavior, and the list goes on.
It is impossible to efficiently process and interpret this gargantuan amount of data.
The thing that makes quantum technology so special, and therefore has such an immensely large potential, is that its bits also work with the overlap of both states: on and off.
This happens because the process does not occur mechanically, thanks to the aspects of quantum physics.
By applying quantum ‘logic’ to the world of computing, problems can be solved at full speed, in parallel and with a multitude of results for each variable.
The bits of quantum computing is called ‘qubits’ (quantum bits.)
Like a bit, a qubit represents a basic unit of information, but a unit of quantum information, which is governed by the rules of quantum physics and therefore the qubit can be 0 or 1, or something in between. In fact, it can be 1 and 0, in parallel.
The “container” effect of transistors and logic gates are replaced by other more complicated processes, and there are several, but the main idea is the same- “isolate” the qubit inside the transistor.
Quantum computers can vary, depending on how they manage to isolate and drive the qubits. But, one thing is common in all: identifying 1’s and 0’s.
You can watch below video where Scientist Dario Gil, VP of Science and Solutions at IBM, explained quantum computing using the deck of cards.
Interesting!
Isn’t it?
Take superconducting circuits, for example.
These are based on small circuits cooled to very low temperatures (-273 ° C) so that the properties are ‘quantized’.
That is, imagine, for example, that it can circulate through the circuit at very low temperatures 1V or 2V, but not 1.5V. This lets the machine know very clearly what the 0 is and what the 1 is.
This is the technology that is most successful in the industry right now.
For example, IBM has a quantum computer of 16 of these superconducting circuits that anyone can control from home through the web.
There are also trapped ions. In this process, the quantum computer uses ions (atoms that have one or more electrons removed from them) as qubits in a certain state. And keeps them trapped in laser traps, then combines them according to the calculation to be performed.
Finally, another well-known quantum computer type is the one that uses nuclear spins. These use spin states of whole molecules like qubits.
The spin is a physical property of the elementary particles. But for now, it is enough to understand that the molecules are in a certain physical state. And the operations are implemented changing their current states to new ones with magnetic resonance.
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This is all about this article and advantages of quantum computing and why it is better than classical computing. As lots of research is going on Quantum Computers, it is not easy to understand in one go. If you have any doubt, feel free to ask me in the comment section.
Happy Computing!
I find it always skeptical to think about Quantum computing and there are lots of research still going on. Thanks for adding these points and giving some thought over this topic.
Absolutely, Bran! There are lot of things going in Quantum computing. Many more things are yet to come. It is interesting to know how it goes in the future.