10 Features of Functional Programming in Scala | Why Scala over Java?

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10 Features of Functional Programming in Scala | Why Scala over Java?

Why I should learn Scala?

Is it really an Emerging Functional Programming Language?

If we compare it with Java, should I learn Scala?

You might have all these questions.

Along with answers to all your questions, this tutorial will help you understand the different features of functional programming in Scala. Why you should learn Scala.

I will also show you some major applications where Scala is used.

Let’s begin.

What is Functional Programming in Scala?

Scala is a general-purpose, high-level language meant to handle any IT use case.

The beast combines both the aspects of Functional Programming as well as of Object-Oriented Programming and outputs it as a high-level language.

The type of Scala language is static which aids in getting rid of the bugs while developing complex applications, and the runtimes of Java Virtual Machine (JVM) and JavaScript. This allows Scala to build high-performing machines with comfortable access to the vast ecosystems of libraries.

Considering the pool of languages in your courtyard, I think Scala and Python programming are the judges.

Be the Pioneers, and not from the herd!

Features of Scala

What are the main features of Scala?

1. Type Inference

Explicit defining of variable’s datatype and the function return type is not required in Scala. The bad boy is smart enough to deem the kind of data.

In the same manner, the nature of the last expression decides the return type of the function

2. Singleton Object

There is no provision of static variables or methods. Singleton object approach is preferred by Scala.

What is Singleton Object?

It means the essential class will have one and only one object in the source file.

In Scala, The singleton object is created by making use of the object keyword instead of class.

3. Immutability

The concept of immutability is deep-seated in Scala.

Naturally, each variable declared is immutable.

What is Mutable and Immutable in Programming?

Immutable in coding context means one cannot change the value once assigned.

At the same time, Scala also allows you to form the mutable variable whose values can be changed as per the time required.

The immutability of the data handles the concurrency control which needs managing the data.

4. Lazy Optimization

By default, the computations are set to occur lazily. The boy does the evaluations of the expressions only when they are in demand, and not otherwise.

Declaration of the lazy variable is made by using the keyword lazy. This increases the performance of the code or algorithm devised.

5. Case Classes and Pattern Matching

Like the other classes, Scala classes are regular classes which are unchangeable and disintegrate via pattern matching.

All the enlisted parameters in the case class are known to every instant or object in the class, i.e., public and even not alterable by default. Since the case class share, its shoulder with pattern matching; one can write more logical code.

6. Concurrency Control

The Standard library of the Scala has the actor model. One can make use of concurrent code using the actor.

Along with this Scala also facilitates one more platform and the tool to tackle efficiently, i.e., Akka.

What is the Akka tool?

The Akka tool is a separate open-source framework whose functionality is the same as to actor and gives us the actor-based concurrency.

The Akka actors may exist in scattered/distributed or gathered/combined with software transactional memory.

7. String Interpolation

What is String Interpolation in Scala?

The new mechanism or functionality to formulate the strings from the data is called string interpolation. It started from the 2.10.0 version of Scala.

What does this do?

The String interpolation flexes the users to embed variable references straight away in processed string laterals. In Scala, we have three string interpolation functions viz s, f, and raw.

8. Higher-Order Functions

What is the Higher-Order function?

It is the function which takes the function as an argument or returns the function.

Simply saying the functions that work with another function is termed to be the higher-order functions.

What is the use of the Higher-Order function in Scala?

Higher-Order Functions have extensive use like to constitute the function composition, lambda function or anonymous functions, etc.

9. Traits

The trait is an interface with partial or semi-permeable implementation.

The collection of abstract and non-abstract methods fall in the pit of traits.

The custom traits can be constructed as per the need making the permutation of abstract, non-abstract, or some abstract methods.

They are compiled in the interfaces of Java with the matching implementation classes which have any modules implemented in traits.

10. Rich Set of Collection

Scala has crateful of collection libraries. It has classes and traits to do the business of collecting data. The assemblage can be a) mutable or b) immutable. One can make use of it as per the need.

The package named with scala.collection.mutable has all the changeable collections. The person can even customize the box by adding, removing, or updating while in the middle of using the kit.

Similarly, scala.collection.immutable contains every immutable collection. This does not allow to alter the data.

So which one to use Scala or Python?

Go with the Scala certification training course as it is way easier in comparison to learning Python.  Moreover, the course walks you through the features of Scala with its practical implications making the language the source of living and standard in the firm.

Java vs. Scala – What to Learn?

A little bit of comparison between the complexity aspect of two language tycoons using a beginner level code example:

One thing is sure short, i.e., Scala is verbose, Let’s get into the code.

Example 1 – A simple list of Strings in Java:

List list = new ArrayList(); 

Scala version of the above:

val list = List("1", "2", "3")

Example 2 – Java version – A list of strings which are numbers but we want to alter to a list of integers

List ints = new ArrayList(); 
for (String s : list) {

Scala Version

val ints = list.map(s => s.toInt)

Similarly, the Class comparison code is available here.

So this comparison tells us that Scala is not only verbose but also easy to remember.

The code and semantics of learning the language are way too comfortable and easy in comparison to Java programming.

Applications of Scala

The industry of information technology is surrounded by almost every programming language. The tycoons or the overlords work in every high-level language, for example, C, C++, C#, Swift, Python, Java, Go, etc.

From last few the current of development river also got the water of Scala. Let’s see the irrigation fields of Scala too.

1. Retail

The retail digital signage gives the facility of reaching and interacting with customers to the businesses, very effectively and efficiently.

The inclusions of users are new businesses, increasing awareness regarding the brands, how to improve the operating efficiency, promotion of new products, and increase the customer experiences.

2. Banking and Finance

The finance businesses make use of Scala by updating stock quotes and the news in the sector, all in real-time.

Also, focus on the reinforcement of brand confidence and in the promotion of dewy services. The signage aids in enhancing the reduction of anticipated time lagging by escalating and advising the customers who are in line.

3. Automotive

Demonstrating the inventories of dewy and used automobiles, contributing to service department advancements and customer allotments indicatively put algebraic accessories at a booth establishing an order are few automotive industry’s uses for the digital signage.

The Final Words

Having gone through the tremendous Scala features there’s hardly any person in denial of learning the marvelous language when it has fruitful results in the present and future.

Moreover, who will wish to cram all those syntaxes which make the algorithm clumsy, I’d rather go for Scala instead of Java or PHP or whatsoever in the market.

I think the moto should be like this:

Learn Fast and easily, in the meantime use brains, Why Scala!

This is all about functional programming in Scala. If you have any doubt, write a comment below.

Editor’s Note: Danish Wadhwa has shared this article.

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